Simplifying the Basic Concepts of Wi-Fi

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Wi-Fi or WiFi whatever one calls it is a technology with the help of which various electronic devices get the permission to get connected to LAN networks that are wireless or WLAN. Besides using 6cm SHF ISM or 5GHz radio bands, it normally uses 12 cm UHF or 2.4GHz. WLAN is also known as the local area network that is wireless or the wireless LAN. The technology is being widely used in the countryside so that the people can enjoy the internet access in such remote areas.

  • WLAN

Being protected with strong passwords WLAN only works according to the settings made as and when needed.  This helps to allow definite devices for getting access to the resources of WLAN whenever they are in the network’s range.

  • Devices Supporting Wi-Fi

With the advancements in technology, the number of devices and gadgets that can make use of the Wi-Fi technology has increased considerably. Some of such devices are:

  • Personal computers
  • Digital cameras
  • Video game consoles
  • Smartphones
  • Tablets
  • Digital audio players
  • Modern printers

Most of the devices today comes with the compatibility option of Wi-Fi which ensures that the user of the device can connect it to the internet without facing any hassles through the WLAN along with an access point that is wireless. The access points are also popularly known to be the hotspots. They are generally known to cover a distance of 66 feets while it is indoors and the range increases when placed outdoors. The devices which are Wi-Fi compatible are based on the standards of IEEE 802.11. Carrier waves are used for the transmission of data.

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  • Wi-Fi Security

while connecting to a Wi-Fi many people think and most have the idea that Wi-Fis does not have well-equipped safety measures when they are compared to the wired connections. The thought is valid to a certain extent because anyone can make use of the internet through Wi-Fi with no basic requirement of wires.

How to make Wi-Fi more secure?

Due to the weak security of Wi-Fi, the process for making it more secure has not only begun but also has been updated according to the test plan besides the program for certification. This has enabled the devices and the different Wi-Fi connections to resist various attacks from the intruders.

Today, although most of the people are working on the Wi-Fi either in the home or in office, many keep on thinking about the question of what is the actual meaning of Wi-Fi. As the name goes, it is the most popular technology of wireless network which makes use of the radio waves for providing high-speed connection of internet and the other network connections through a wireless mode. The Wi-Fi is now being widely used even in the public places and on roads, hotels, airports, restaurants and often the services are provided for free for attracting a large number of customers. Certain authorities are also known to promote their business through the same. Wi-Fi generally does not provide network access to spaces like garden sheds and also kitchens.

An Overview of Large Area Network (LAN)

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Local area network or LAN is a computer network helps in establishing the connection of the other computers within a limited area covering a certain range. Such networks can be easily established in homes, schools, university campuses, and laboratory and office buildings. Besides these, it also comes with the feature of network equipment which facilitates interconnection in an easy manner.

LAN Topologies

The LAN topologies are 5 in number. They help in a proper understanding of the organization of the network devices along with the logical architectures. It helps in knowing the direction of signals that communicate between devices. On the other hand, the cables that connect them do not have the similar fixing manner.

LAN Topologies – Types

  1. Bus Topology

In this, the signal is placed into the medium which is then received by all devices on the bus. But at a single time, if two or more devices send signals, can lead to interference between the two. Bus topology can consist of copper wires that are long enough with the tapping of other wires into the same.

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  1. Ring Topology

This consists of a device contacting two others or all devices communicating in a circle within the network. Here, if a computer sends data from any of the interfaces then the device to which the data is being sent can respond. But many times, some rings transmit traffic in a single direction. On the other hand, the others transmit traffic in both directions. For example – FDDI and Token Ring.

  1. Tree Topology

This topology is also called the hybrid topology. It has derived its name for the manner of the connected devices. Being narrow at the bottom, only a few devices are present but it does spread its branches on the top. At the bottom, the switches and servers are located while the user’s computers are located at the top of the tree.

  1. Star Topology

The star topology is often known as a star network. This particular network setup looks like a star and it comprises a hub which is connected to nodes. This hub acts as a central network or server with which the nodes or clients remain connected. Star topology is advantageous over the others because:

  • Nodes can be easily attached
  • If one node stops functioning, it can be removed while the others work normally

Disadvantages of this network are:

  • If central hub fails, the entire network collapses
  1. Mesh Topology

It is a sort of network setup where each node and network device remains interconnected with each other. The nodes not only send their own signal but also assist in relaying data from the other connected clients. This topology is mainly used for wireless networks. It is mainly of 2 types. They are:

  • Full Mesh Topology
  • Partial Mesh Topology

LAN Uses

LAN connects computers along with the peripheral devices that are connected to a single server in a distinct geographical area like an office, school or library. The LAN connection is used by various devices like computers and mobiles for sharing of resources.

Secure Wi-Fi

How to Secure Wi-Fi

  • “WI-Fi” stands for “Wireless Fidelity”. Mostly people rush through while setting up their WI-Fi connection, without taking into consideration about the security for connection. It is implied that they wish to connect to the network as soon as possible.
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  • To secure the WI-Fi network is little tricky to most of the people where they give up their hopes early and leave their WI-Fi network unsecured.
  • There are many loopholes by which the unsecured wireless connection can be easily hacked.
  • If the wireless network is hacked which may lead to the complete usage of the internet package or if your plan is a limited one then it might lead to additional charges.
  • And if you have an unlimited data plan then it might result to less speed if the WI-Fi is hacked.
  • In order to secure the WI-Fi user needs to follow the few steps:

Need to open your router settings page:

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  • You need to have knowledge about the process to access your wireless router’s settings.
  • In general it can be performed by typing in “” into your web browser.
  • Next, enter the valid user name and password for the router.
  • The user name varies from router to router, for which the user needs to check the user manual for the details.

Creation of unique password on the router:

  • After the successful login, the first thing user should do is to secure the network, i.e., is to change the password from the default setting to a more secured one.
  • This prevents the unauthorised entries to the router where the user can easily maintain the security settings that you want.
  • You can change the password from Administration settings on your router’s settings page.
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How do people misuse it:

  • This is public database of default login credentials of the wireless routers, switches, modems and other networking equipment.
  • For example, anyone can easily make out from database that factory default settings for Linksys equipment accessed by using admin for both password and username fields.

Change your Network’s SSID name:

  • The SSID of your Wireless Router in general stated as “default” or set router’s brand name.
  • Though this does not make your network more secure, the change of SSID name of the network is great idea as it makes more obvious for others to know about the network to which they are connected.
  • This particular setting in general is under wireless settings in the page of router’s settings.
  • After completion of this user must ensure that they are connected to the correct wireless network.

*In SSID name you should not use your name, address or any other personal data.

How do people misuse:

  • There are tools for scanning Wi-Fi such as Kismet and inSSIDer where they are available at free of cost.
  • These tools allow any person to identify all the available Wireless Networks in an area though the routers if the broadcasting is not by their SSID name.

How to Enable Network Encryption:

  • To prevent from the usage of internet by the other computers in the area you need to encrypt the wireless signals.
  • There are different encryption methods for wireless settings that include WEP, WPA-Personal and Wi-Fi Protected Access version 2.
  • In order to enable encryption on your Wireless network, you need to open wireless security settings on the configuration page of your router.
  • This lets you to select the method of security you desire.
  • To access the network enter passphrase, ensure to set this to something that will be difficult to guess and it can be numbers, letters and any special characters in passphrase.

How do people misuse it:

There are some free tools that give an access to a non-hackers like AirCrack and coWPAtty. These are used to crack the WEP or WPA keys utilises brute force techniques.

How to Filter MAC Addresses:

  • You might have the laptop or even a Wi-Fi enabled mobile phone; one should know that all the wireless devices will have a unique MAC address.
  • For enhanced protection, you can add MAC addresses of all devices to your wireless router’s settings, so that only specified devices will connect to the Wi-Fi network.
  • The addresses of MAC are hard-coded into the networking equipment and it results as one address which allows one device on network.
  • To enable MAC address filtering, list all your hardware devices that you wish to connect to the wireless network.
  • Identify the MAC address and then add them to MAC address filtering in settings of router’s administrative.
  • You can find MAC addresses of Wireless mobile phones and the other portable devices under the network settings which differ from one device to the other.

 How do people misuse it:

  • Some people can change the MAC address of their own computer and connect to others network, which allows connection from devices that facilitates a specific MAC address.
  • Any person can modify MAC address of their device i.e., wireless by using the sniffing tool like Nmap.
  • Then they can modify MAC address of their computer by using another tool like MAC Shift which is free of cost.

Reduce the Range of Wireless Signal:

If the range of your router is high, but you live in small studio apartment then you can decrease the signal range either by using a different wireless channel.

Apply the Anti-Wi-Fi Paint:

  • Researchers have developed special Wi-Fi blocking paint which aids to stop the unauthorised accessing of your network without having to set up encryption at router level.
  • And this paint has chemicals which blocks the radio signals by absorbing.

Upgrade the Router’s Firmware:

  • You should verify manufacturer’s site often to ensure that the router is running on the latest firmware.
  • You can identify the existing firmware version of the router by means of the router’s dashboard at 192.168.*.

 To know who is connected to your wireless Network:

If you are worried that an unauthorised person might connect to Internet by using your Wireless network, you can try AirSnare a free utility tool that looks for unexpected MAC addresses on DHCP requests or Wireless network.

The other option is that you can open the administration page of your router and look for DHCP clients table.

In this table you can see the list of all the computers as well as wireless devices that are connected to your network.

The best idea is to turn off the router completely when you do not plan to use the system for longer time.

So that you can save electricity and door remains 100% closed for the wireless piggybackers.

If a situation arises that you wish to allow a new device connects to your network then you need to know the MAC address of the device and then add it to the router.

Connect to your Secure Wireless Network:

In brief, MAC address filtering with WPA2 encryption might be the best way to secure the wireless network.

Once you enable many security settings in your wireless router, you have to add new settings to the computers and other wireless devices so that they can connect to the network.

One can select the computer which directly connects to the network, which does not require the entry of SSID and passphrase and any other data all the time, i,e., whenever you connect to Internet.

Check the Status of Network Connection of Wireless Devices

It has become an absolute need to have an access to network devices either for businesses or  for home offices. But if you think that, after more than a decade of innovations, you would get a picture-perfect product by now, then you are mistaken! Still anybody can face the situation where their network devices were not connected as they had wished for.

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Especially, wireless devices can get disconnected suddenly and sometimes even without providing any warning. The reason behind this could be anything like signal interference, technical glitches etc. Even though if you are following the exact same steps to get connected successfully every day for months, but any day things can suddenly stop working.

So to avoid such situations, we need to keep network connections status in check continuously. Unfortunately, the ways for checking status of network connection depend largely on the particular device involved.

Status of Network Connection of Wireless Devices

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In case of Smartphones, special icons inside a bar towards the top of main screen display both the features – cellular as well as WiFi connection. Generally multiple vertical bars are displayed by these icons to show network connections. A  high quality connection has more bars compared to a poor or low quality connection. In Android phones data transfer across the network or connection is displayed by flashing arrows with in the same icon. There is always a Settings app involved for typically viewing more details about the connections and how to disconnect. If you wish, you have the option of installing various multiple third-party apps for getting report about wireless issues and connections.

Laptops, PCs and other Computers

Every operating system of a computer has in-built connection management utilizes.

For example on Microsoft Windows, to know the status of both wireless and wired networks, we have Network and Sharing Center where as in Chromebooks Chrome O/S network issues are really bad as Chromebooks mainly work on an active Internet connection. So we have two places for changing wireless settings on a Chromebook. One is through the status bar in the bottom right-hand corner of your Chromebook’s screen which has icons reflecting the connection status and another through Network bar near the top of the screen. Though some users prefer to install third-party applications offering similar features using different user interfaces.


The administrator console of any router records details of both type of connections – connection with the outside world and with any other devices connected through LAN. These days almost all routers has LED lights indicating connection status for its Internet link plus any wired links. To interpret the connection status using these LED lights, first one has to learn the meaning of each color and flashes.

Game Consoles, Printers and Home Appliances

Beyond routers, an increasing number of consumer devices in home network with built-in wireless features is not new in today’s world. Each device requires its own unique method for initiating new connections and checking their status. Many gaming consoles like Sony PlayStation, Microsoft Xbox and Smart TVs offer their own graphical on-screen menus such as “Setup” and “Network”.

Printers has either text-based menus visible on their small local displays, or an interface for checking status from a separate computer remotely. In today’s automated world few devices like thermostats may also have automated features like small screen displays, where-as, some others devices offer only lights and/or buttons.

How Often You Should Check Wireless Connections?

Checking the network connection regularly is as important as as knowing how to do it. When you receive an error message on your device’s screen, checking the connection status becomes very necessary. But in many cases you will not get a direct notification, like while on roaming your movement may cause the network to drop out in your mobile device.

It is better to check your connection every time you start troubleshooting issues concerning crashed applications or applications that suddenly stopped responding.

EasyNetMonitor Tool

It is easy freeware software that is used to verify the online status of any computers or websites. This icon will appear on the system tray. The user can click on this icon in order to see all the websites along with computers online. This easy net monitor tool presently comes with a single file that can be easily downloaded. The file size is upto 90kb. There is no requirement of any installation of the software. The double click will allow the file to run. Once the file is ‘run’ it can be seen in the system tray. It is very simple to uses the verification on the remote computer and is accessible on the network. It targets all the types of users.

How to install?

  • Right click the option “ADD” in the icon list that brings a pop up window, where you can add the website address or any IP that is to be opted for the system.
  • It will monitor the website. In order to check the online status of the website the right clicks on the icon in the system tray.
  • It allows monitoring of any two websites or computers at a time.
  • Its working does not alter if the PC, it goes down as it is provided with a manual system for checking. For monitoring production websites the users can use the free website uptime monitoring service and free ping test tool.
  • It works well for the check of the non-mission critical website or computers.


It is a smallest and free tool to monitor local networks on the computers. It is just easy to open the pop up menu and get the status of the computer network state. It is useful piece of program that is designed to test on the remote PC and other reachable internet hosts across the chosen network. It is an easier and also a quicker way that supports to gather information about the on-line state of the local network. It can be downloaded and used directly. Any internet host can be monitored. It is available free with PRO additional features. It offers life time support along with feedback to the products. The program can be run and required address can be added easily. The icon will turn on to green color if the device is within the reach of the network. It works effectively by sending the echo requests to the target packets of the PC with the echo responses offered with the queries. The ICMP tool that is built in the windows system is used.

System requirements:

This tool works effectively with the help of the installed Microsoft .NET Frame work on windows XP, 8, 7, Vista Os’s. It is an easy and very interesting tool to get the internet host and local network details. The EasyNetMonitor SE is the Windows service version of the easy net monitor that has configuration file as (enm_config.xml) which is compatible with windows 7 and windows 8 versions.

Additional information:

The options panel offers several configuration settings such as establishment of IP checkup along with time intervals. The run on windows can be scheduled after startup automatically. The log-in details to the external file can be done. The tool disable can be done easily. It can run effectively even on low quality CPU and requires less system memory. It provides a good response time for key strokes accompanied by mouse commands. These are applied at a very stable state. It does not cause any difficulties like system crash, errors in the application etc. It is an effective test for the reachable computer with the help of LAN.

Computer Network In Vehicles

The vehicles now-a-days contain many circuits, sensors and other electrical components related to the modern technology. All these parts are to be communicated with each other to perform functions among the available networks. For example communication is needed in between the dash board switch and front of the vehicle, for the head lights to react when the driver presses its switch. In the vehicle systems this communication is done by point to point connections. If the entire vehicle features as sensors, motors, switches and electrical devices are accumulated that results in accumulation of enormous wire connections. The present day networks provide a more efficient method for today’s in vehicle communication easily.

This networking is a multiplexing that is used to transfer data and distribute the data among all the electronic modules with a serial bus. Without the serial networking the in vehicle communication will require a dedicated wiring from point to point that results in bulky, expensive and very complex harness of wiring that is much difficult. The serial bus application will reduce the number of wires with the combination of signals on a single wire. The information is sent to individual modules to control each and every function as Anti-lock braking, turn signals and the display of the dash boards. The present day vehicle needs the increase in the networking facility more evidently.


Standardized protocols will enable the expansion of the higher volume economy class vehicles. Many standards have been developed but SAE and CAN (controlled area network) are the most predominant standards.

With regards to classification SAE has defined three basic categories as:

Class A (low speed)

Class B (medium speed)

Class C (high speed)

The high speed CAN (Class c) network is used commute to work at 200miles per hour whereas Class B protocol is 2 miles per hour. The travel is very much lesser for Class C network.

Class A:

The functioning multiple of Class A functions requires an inexpensive, low speed communication and unique generic UARTs. These functions are not been standardized by the international organizations.

Class B:

JI850 is adopted as a standard protocol for Class B networks by SAE. It has been used as a most recommended practice for more than seven years that got acceptance throughout the North America. It is implemented in many production vehicles for data share and diagnostic purposes. It is a low cost implementation as body electronics, diagnostics and instrumentation. It is a big effort that is a combination for GM Class 2 and Ford SCP. This class is the result of the two wire differential bus. OBD-II will specify the stored default codes to be available through a diagnostic port with the help of a standard protocol.

Class C:

It is a predominant multiplexing protocol that is targeted at high speed, real time control and it can operate up to 1 Mb/s. It is developed in the early 1980s by Robert Bosch GmbH that worked with Intel on the first silicon implementation 82526 controller. The initial implementation of version 1.2 allows 11-bit message identifier with limited number of distinct messages. ISO in Europe has adopted this CAN as the high speed network protocol. It expressed an immediate need for the CAN protocol especially for the luxury models because of this advantage offered to the highly distributed nature of the electronic sub systems. CAN acceptance is growing. The SAE bus and truck subcommittee for control and communications selected this as the basis for J1939, a Class C network for truck and bus applications.

Intel and Multiplexing:

It has been a key player for standardized automotive in vehicle networking from past 20 years. Intel is now integrated with J1850 functionality. The development of 82526 and the stand lone versions that are integrated with 82527 CAN architecture. The controllers will handle and communicate the functions where transmission, reception, error detection and its confinement are included. The communication supports the functions the network where access, arbitration, error detection etc. is made easy. In order to minimize CPU overhead three interrupts and byte level message buffers that provide the efficient message handling.

More functions and multiple networks:

The main key feature that has much benefit is the ability to add functions without any new hardware or any decreased reliability. The capability of networking will become common on mid and low priced automobiles where the manufacturers are able to offer the functionality that is found on high end vehicles.

The need for speed and low latency are very critical for the power train and vehicle dynamics. Definitely a gate way would transfer the required diagnostic information in between the multiple networks.

Advantages of networking:

It provides the system benefits that are realized at the beginning of in vehicle network.

  • It decreased the number of wires that are required for each function.
  • The system quality, serviceability and installation are improved along with system cost and weight.
  • Common sensor data such as vehicle speed, temperatures etc. are available on the network so as to share the data in order to eliminate the need of reluctant sensors.

Change Default Password on a Network Router

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Every network routers are managed with a special administrative account. The router is set to a default user name and password for the account at the factory. The same settings are used by all the equipment.

In order to improve the security of the network it is required to change the administrative password. This is to be done immediately after the installation of the whole unit. There are steps to be gone through to change the default password on a common network router. These steps may vary based on the specific model of the router that is used but the process may be in a similar in any case of such router settings.

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Steps to be followed:

The interface of the admin is to be determined and it is to be entered in the browser:

  • The present day wireless network routers are mostly administrated by the web browser. Therefore it is required to find out the routers’ administrative interface and connect to it.
  • Most of the manufacturers have a default IP sub net set that helps to determine the router’s IP address that accesses to the administrative interface. 
  • It is required to consult the manual of the router for correct address.

Log in to the network router:

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  • Next step is to log in to the administrative console with the help of a web browser and current password and user name.
  • If the administrator default name is not changed then the default admin password is can be located form the router manufacturer’s website.


  • Navigation to the router’s appropriate administrative console or the security section where the setting is provided to change the password.
  • In the administration tab the option will be directly available.
  • Click on this button to open the setting to rest the password.

Strong password setting:

  • After the SSID is settled it is required to enter the Pre-Shared Key and now the password is to be selected at random and complex to escape from the hackers.
  • It is preferred to follow the guide for the best security practice.
  • After setting the new password it is required to turn off the “allow admin via wireless” setting off so as to administrate the router.
  • Finally save the password after it is reentered for confirmation.

Routers with a generic user name and password to the log in device’s setting for web tool management. In order to avoid others from credential log into the network router it is essential to change the settings otherwise there may be chance for illegal usage and even can lock the network. To avoid such problems it is essential to change the network’s password.

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How to Change Wifi Password for a D Link Router Explained on YouTube

How To Change Wifi Password?

For D-Link Router

To Change Your Wifi Password Follow The Below Steps-

  1. Login To Your Router By Entering This As Your Web Address –
  2. Enter Router Username And Password
  3. Click On Wireless,Nect Click On Wireless Security,Next Click On Security Mode,Next Click On WPA2 Only,Next Click On Pre Shared Key- Here Enter Your New Password
  4. Click On Apply The Change
  5. Restart Your Wifi
  6. Your Password Is Changed

For TP-Link Router – 

To Change Your Wifi Password Follow The Below Steps-

  1. Login To Your Router Admin Panel Using The IP Address Or
  2. Enter The Username And The Password , For Most Of The Routers The Default Username Will Be “admin”
  3. Click On Wireless, Click On Wireless Security,Cleck On WPA/WPA2 Personal(Recommended),Enter Your Router Password
  4. Enter Your New Password And Save It.

For Netgear Router – 

  1. Login To Your Router By Entering This As Web Address or Or 
  2. Here Enter Username And Password Of The Router
  3. Click On Wireless,Then Click On Security Options, Select WPA2-PSK [AES], 
  4. Enter Your New Password 
  5. Click On Apply Changes And Reboot Wifi For Changes To Effect

How to Build a Wireless Home Network

It is easy to build wireless home network. The configuration settings on network router depend on the model whether it is wired or wireless. It helps to the houses with more than one computer. It provides a home network to get connected to all the devices. The wireless routers are the perfect introduction to reorganize the home network to all the devices that can be operated with internet or Wi-Fi connection. However, this setup requires some assembly. This setup is easy but just requires purchase and plugin of the router. It is just a centrally controlled network that can be managed and installed easily with few simple steps. The setup process is not so difficult and the time taken for this setup is approximately one hour.



  • First of all it is required to choose a convenient location for the installation of the router on placing the device on a convenient platform. The router is to be plugged in to the power source and then it is to be turned on by a push on the power button.
  • Now it is optional to connect the internet modem to the router. Almost all the network modems connect with the help of Ethernet cable. After this connection the router jack should be sure of the power cycle i.e. the turn back off and turn back on of the modem to ensure the router recognition.
  • Even though the router is a wireless model it is required to connect to computer first with a network cable. The usage of the cable in the installation process will ensure maximum reliability and once done with this installation the computer can be changed to wireless connection which is desired.
  • Now for the network administration it is required to enter the router’s address in the address field of the web. It is required to contact about the router’s documentation for the determination of the exact model address. Here in this step it is not required to work with internet connection.
  • The home page of the router will ask the username and password that are provided in the router documentation. It is suggested to change the password for security reasons. It is preferred to avoid unnecessary complications that occur during the basic set up process.
  • The internet information is required to be entered in to the router configuration section if the router is to be connected to the internet.
  • If the primary computer is used and if it is an old network the provider will require the update of the Mac address of the router that is previously read by the device.
  • The wireless router may require the change of the network name.
  • Now the verification is to be done whether the internet connection is working properly or not. Conformation to be done by the computer after it received the IP address information from the router.
  • It necessary it is also required to check about the computer connection to the internet.
  • Now the router can be connected to additional computers that can be done with a wireless connection to ensure of the router that matched to network name.
  • Now finally the additional network security features can be configured.