How to Connect a Printer to a Local System

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3 Quick & Easy Ways to Connect a Printer to the Local System or Laptop

You may wondering how to connect a printer to the local system or a laptop, here through this article we are providing 3 easy & hassle free ways to connect the printer. By using this process you can connect the printer on your self without the help of a technician. Apart from connecting the printer to the local system we are also explaining about how to connect a printer to the systems or laptops which are connected in LAN, how to set a task to the printer from a particular system by using its IP address.

How to Connect a Printer to a Local System, How to Connect a Printer to the systems which are in LAN, How to connect a Printer by using its TCP/IP Address Explained

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How to Connect a Printer to the Local System or PC or Laptop?

  • Go to the control panel
  • Open the control panel
  • In the control panel window select Hardware & Sound option
  • In the hardware Sound menu select the Devices & printers option
  • Devices & printers window will be displayed which will show the list of connected external devices
  • Now select add a printer option
  • Upon selecting the add a printer option
  • Your PC or Laptop will start searching, if there are any printers connected already it will display.
  • Now select the Printer that I want not listed and hit the next button
  • Now it will lead you to the find a printer by other options window
  • In that window select Add a Local printer or Network Printer with Manual settings option
  • Now select the use an existing port from choose printer port window and click the next button
  • You will be directed to the install the printer driver window, which will show the Printer brand name and the model select the name & model of the printer you want to connect and click the next button.
  • Which version of the driver you want to use dialogue box will be opened select the use the driver that is currently selected and click the next button
  • Now give a name to your printer and click the next button
  • Your printer is connected to your PC or laptop click the finish button.
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How to Connect a Printer to the systems which are in LAN?

  • Go to the control panel
  • Open the control panel
  • In the control panel window select Hardware & Sound option
  • In the hardware Sound menu select the Devices & printers option
  • Devices & printers window will be displayed which will show the list of connected external devices
  • Now select add a printer option
  • Upon selecting the add a printer option
  • Your PC or Laptop will start searching, if there are any printers connected already it will display.
  • Now select the Printer that I want not listed and hit the next button
  • Now it will lead you to the find a printer by other options window
  • In that window select a shared printer by name option
  • Your printer is connected to your PC or laptop click the finish button.
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How to connect a Printer by using its TCP/ IP Address?

  • Go to the control panel
  • Open the control panel
  • In the control panel window select Hardware & Sound option
  • In the hardware Sound menu select the Devices & printers option
  • Devices & printers window will be displayed which will show the list of connected external devices
  • Now select add a printer option
  • Upon selecting the add a printer option
  • Your PC or Laptop will start searching, if there are any printers connected already it will display.
  • Now select the Printer that I want not listed and hit the next button
  • Now it will lead you to the find a printer by other options window
  • In that window select Add a printer using TCP\IP address or hostname option
  • Now enter the hostname or IP address and click the next button
  • Your printer is connected to your PC or laptop click the finish button.
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Recover Permanently Deleted Files, Images, Pictures, Videos for Free

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Normally if we throw the unused things in the store room then we can collect them back whenever we require them but when we throw them outside we cannot collect them likewise when we delete the files or images or pictures or videos from our PC or laptop or smartphone or tab etc we can collect them from the recycle bin but when we delete them permanently even from the recycle bin earlier it was a tough job to recover them.

How to Recover Permanently Deleted Files or Images or Videos for Free Explained

But now it is a very easy thing to recover the permanently deleted files or images or pictures or videos from our PC or laptop or smartphone or tab, and it can be done for free and in just 4 simple steps so through this article you can learn to Recover the Permanently Deleted Files for Free. Here we are doing with the Recuva software.

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How to Recover the Permanently Deleted Files for Free for Windows?

  • First download he free version of Recuva software
  • Install the downloaded software.
  • After the installation process is competed now open Recuva
  • Click the start button to search the permanently deleted files
  • The Recuva software will start its search to recover the permanently deleted files
  • Allow it to complete the task and after completing the scanning it will show the permanently deleted files list
  • Now select the files or images or pictures or videos you want to recover and click the recover button
  • You can recover the files or images or pictures or videos to the at your desired destination by selecting the options
  • Then you can use the files or images or pictures or videos as before
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Simplifying the Basic Concepts of Wi-Fi

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Wi-Fi or WiFi whatever one calls it is a technology with the help of which various electronic devices get the permission to get connected to LAN networks that are wireless or WLAN. Besides using 6cm SHF ISM or 5GHz radio bands, it normally uses 12 cm UHF or 2.4GHz. WLAN is also known as the local area network that is wireless or the wireless LAN. The technology is being widely used in the countryside so that the people can enjoy the internet access in such remote areas.

  • WLAN

Being protected with strong passwords WLAN only works according to the settings made as and when needed.  This helps to allow definite devices for getting access to the resources of WLAN whenever they are in the network’s range.

  • Devices Supporting Wi-Fi

With the advancements in technology, the number of devices and gadgets that can make use of the Wi-Fi technology has increased considerably. Some of such devices are:

  • Personal computers
  • Digital cameras
  • Video game consoles
  • Smartphones
  • Tablets
  • Digital audio players
  • Modern printers

Most of the devices today comes with the compatibility option of Wi-Fi which ensures that the user of the device can connect it to the internet without facing any hassles through the WLAN along with an access point that is wireless. The access points are also popularly known to be the hotspots. They are generally known to cover a distance of 66 feets while it is indoors and the range increases when placed outdoors. The devices which are Wi-Fi compatible are based on the standards of IEEE 802.11. Carrier waves are used for the transmission of data.

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  • Wi-Fi Security

while connecting to a Wi-Fi many people think and most have the idea that Wi-Fis does not have well-equipped safety measures when they are compared to the wired connections. The thought is valid to a certain extent because anyone can make use of the internet through Wi-Fi with no basic requirement of wires.

How to make Wi-Fi more secure?

Due to the weak security of Wi-Fi, the process for making it more secure has not only begun but also has been updated according to the test plan besides the program for certification. This has enabled the devices and the different Wi-Fi connections to resist various attacks from the intruders.

Today, although most of the people are working on the Wi-Fi either in the home or in office, many keep on thinking about the question of what is the actual meaning of Wi-Fi. As the name goes, it is the most popular technology of wireless network which makes use of the radio waves for providing high-speed connection of internet and the other network connections through a wireless mode. The Wi-Fi is now being widely used even in the public places and on roads, hotels, airports, restaurants and often the services are provided for free for attracting a large number of customers. Certain authorities are also known to promote their business through the same. Wi-Fi generally does not provide network access to spaces like garden sheds and also kitchens.

An Overview of Large Area Network (LAN)

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Local area network or LAN is a computer network helps in establishing the connection of the other computers within a limited area covering a certain range. Such networks can be easily established in homes, schools, university campuses, and laboratory and office buildings. Besides these, it also comes with the feature of network equipment which facilitates interconnection in an easy manner.

LAN Topologies

The LAN topologies are 5 in number. They help in a proper understanding of the organization of the network devices along with the logical architectures. It helps in knowing the direction of signals that communicate between devices. On the other hand, the cables that connect them do not have the similar fixing manner.

LAN Topologies – Types

  1. Bus Topology

In this, the signal is placed into the medium which is then received by all devices on the bus. But at a single time, if two or more devices send signals, can lead to interference between the two. Bus topology can consist of copper wires that are long enough with the tapping of other wires into the same.

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  1. Ring Topology

This consists of a device contacting two others or all devices communicating in a circle within the network. Here, if a computer sends data from any of the interfaces then the device to which the data is being sent can respond. But many times, some rings transmit traffic in a single direction. On the other hand, the others transmit traffic in both directions. For example – FDDI and Token Ring.

  1. Tree Topology

This topology is also called the hybrid topology. It has derived its name for the manner of the connected devices. Being narrow at the bottom, only a few devices are present but it does spread its branches on the top. At the bottom, the switches and servers are located while the user’s computers are located at the top of the tree.

  1. Star Topology

The star topology is often known as a star network. This particular network setup looks like a star and it comprises a hub which is connected to nodes. This hub acts as a central network or server with which the nodes or clients remain connected. Star topology is advantageous over the others because:

  • Nodes can be easily attached
  • If one node stops functioning, it can be removed while the others work normally

Disadvantages of this network are:

  • If central hub fails, the entire network collapses
  1. Mesh Topology

It is a sort of network setup where each node and network device remains interconnected with each other. The nodes not only send their own signal but also assist in relaying data from the other connected clients. This topology is mainly used for wireless networks. It is mainly of 2 types. They are:

  • Full Mesh Topology
  • Partial Mesh Topology

LAN Uses

LAN connects computers along with the peripheral devices that are connected to a single server in a distinct geographical area like an office, school or library. The LAN connection is used by various devices like computers and mobiles for sharing of resources.

ICMP Ping Tool

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ICMP means Internet Control Message Protocol. It is a useful internet protocol that is constructive to manage the network and its administration. It is a required element especially in IP implementations. It is a control protocol but does carry any application data. It just carries the information about the status of the network. The ICMP report can be used to report the errors that are underlying the communication through the network applications.

It reports about the availability of remote hosts. The network congestion statistics can be reported. It is a best example of ICMP in the practice of ping utility that uses the ICMP for the probe remote hosts in order to have responsiveness along with an overall round trip time of the probe messages. It supports the trace route in order to identify the immediate connection in between the host and the terminus.

How does ICMP Ping Tool work?

ICMP is particularly a network diagnostic tool that works alive and responds accordingly. It easily compensates the IP protocol in case of error response. It generally has two types of messages as error responding and query messages that are used to analyze the network problems. These query messages are of two types:

  • Echo request message
  • Echo reply message

  Steps:

  • An echo message is sent to the destination from the source of ICMP.
  • A sequence of identifiers is set by a ping program that gets incremented with each and every echo message.
  • The sending time in the data section is inserted in the data section of the message.
  • If the host is alive then it sends an echo message back to the source.
  • The time of arrival of the response message is noted by the ping program and this send time is used in the message part to calculate the round trip time.
  • This will increment the identifier sequence and sends a set by the user in order to terminate the problematic programs.

The whole process is summarized for the percentage packet loss and such information is data summarized for their display that shows a packet of transmissions along with the received data, percentage loss, minimum and average round up times.

Features:

It is a free manage engine that helps to administrate the availability of servers, websites and other networks. It performs real time trace outs. It facilitates to find the trace out details. It performs a DNS look up along with response time monitoring. Ping success and ping failure calculates the ping table data.  It can track the IP addresses of the network devices in the Ping Data table. The websites and destination device round trip time can be found out. It presents a graphical view of the RTT over time. The ping packets time before expiring in the network is found out now. Time to live is mostly populated in the Ping data table. The DNS records as A records, SOA records, MX records, NS records and Text records. It retains the IP address if once it is entered in the tool in order to have its subsequent usage.

Secure Wi-Fi

How to Secure Wi-Fi

  • “WI-Fi” stands for “Wireless Fidelity”. Mostly people rush through while setting up their WI-Fi connection, without taking into consideration about the security for connection. It is implied that they wish to connect to the network as soon as possible.

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  • To secure the WI-Fi network is little tricky to most of the people where they give up their hopes early and leave their WI-Fi network unsecured.
  • There are many loopholes by which the unsecured wireless connection can be easily hacked.
  • If the wireless network is hacked which may lead to the complete usage of the internet package or if your plan is a limited one then it might lead to additional charges.
  • And if you have an unlimited data plan then it might result to less speed if the WI-Fi is hacked.
  • In order to secure the WI-Fi user needs to follow the few steps:

Need to open your router settings page:

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  • You need to have knowledge about the process to access your wireless router’s settings.
  • In general it can be performed by typing in “192.168.1.1” into your web browser.
  • Next, enter the valid user name and password for the router.
  • The user name varies from router to router, for which the user needs to check the user manual for the details.

Creation of unique password on the router:

  • After the successful login, the first thing user should do is to secure the network, i.e., is to change the password from the default setting to a more secured one.
  • This prevents the unauthorised entries to the router where the user can easily maintain the security settings that you want.
  • You can change the password from Administration settings on your router’s settings page.

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How do people misuse it:

  • This is public database of default login credentials of the wireless routers, switches, modems and other networking equipment.
  • For example, anyone can easily make out from database that factory default settings for Linksys equipment accessed by using admin for both password and username fields.

Change your Network’s SSID name:

  • The SSID of your Wireless Router in general stated as “default” or set router’s brand name.
  • Though this does not make your network more secure, the change of SSID name of the network is great idea as it makes more obvious for others to know about the network to which they are connected.
  • This particular setting in general is under wireless settings in the page of router’s settings.
  • After completion of this user must ensure that they are connected to the correct wireless network.

*In SSID name you should not use your name, address or any other personal data.

How do people misuse:

  • There are tools for scanning Wi-Fi such as Kismet and inSSIDer where they are available at free of cost.
  • These tools allow any person to identify all the available Wireless Networks in an area though the routers if the broadcasting is not by their SSID name.

How to Enable Network Encryption:

  • To prevent from the usage of internet by the other computers in the area you need to encrypt the wireless signals.
  • There are different encryption methods for wireless settings that include WEP, WPA-Personal and Wi-Fi Protected Access version 2.
  • In order to enable encryption on your Wireless network, you need to open wireless security settings on the configuration page of your router.
  • This lets you to select the method of security you desire.
  • To access the network enter passphrase, ensure to set this to something that will be difficult to guess and it can be numbers, letters and any special characters in passphrase.

How do people misuse it:

There are some free tools that give an access to a non-hackers like AirCrack and coWPAtty. These are used to crack the WEP or WPA keys utilises brute force techniques.

How to Filter MAC Addresses:

  • You might have the laptop or even a Wi-Fi enabled mobile phone; one should know that all the wireless devices will have a unique MAC address.
  • For enhanced protection, you can add MAC addresses of all devices to your wireless router’s settings, so that only specified devices will connect to the Wi-Fi network.
  • The addresses of MAC are hard-coded into the networking equipment and it results as one address which allows one device on network.
  • To enable MAC address filtering, list all your hardware devices that you wish to connect to the wireless network.
  • Identify the MAC address and then add them to MAC address filtering in settings of router’s administrative.
  • You can find MAC addresses of Wireless mobile phones and the other portable devices under the network settings which differ from one device to the other.

 How do people misuse it:

  • Some people can change the MAC address of their own computer and connect to others network, which allows connection from devices that facilitates a specific MAC address.
  • Any person can modify MAC address of their device i.e., wireless by using the sniffing tool like Nmap.
  • Then they can modify MAC address of their computer by using another tool like MAC Shift which is free of cost.

Reduce the Range of Wireless Signal:

If the range of your router is high, but you live in small studio apartment then you can decrease the signal range either by using a different wireless channel.

Apply the Anti-Wi-Fi Paint:

  • Researchers have developed special Wi-Fi blocking paint which aids to stop the unauthorised accessing of your network without having to set up encryption at router level.
  • And this paint has chemicals which blocks the radio signals by absorbing.

Upgrade the Router’s Firmware:

  • You should verify manufacturer’s site often to ensure that the router is running on the latest firmware.
  • You can identify the existing firmware version of the router by means of the router’s dashboard at 192.168.*.

 To know who is connected to your wireless Network:

If you are worried that an unauthorised person might connect to Internet by using your Wireless network, you can try AirSnare a free utility tool that looks for unexpected MAC addresses on DHCP requests or Wireless network.

The other option is that you can open the administration page of your router and look for DHCP clients table.

In this table you can see the list of all the computers as well as wireless devices that are connected to your network.

The best idea is to turn off the router completely when you do not plan to use the system for longer time.

So that you can save electricity and door remains 100% closed for the wireless piggybackers.

If a situation arises that you wish to allow a new device connects to your network then you need to know the MAC address of the device and then add it to the router.

Connect to your Secure Wireless Network:

In brief, MAC address filtering with WPA2 encryption might be the best way to secure the wireless network.

Once you enable many security settings in your wireless router, you have to add new settings to the computers and other wireless devices so that they can connect to the network.

One can select the computer which directly connects to the network, which does not require the entry of SSID and passphrase and any other data all the time, i,e., whenever you connect to Internet.

Speed Up Your Phone’s Internet and Network Connections

Though we have smartphones for easy access to internet using various wireless networks, but sometimes , the internet speed available to smartphones for browsing and communicating online can be very disappointing.

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We all know that there are certain factors such as processor or network connection speed which can’t be changed for increasing the connection speed.

Still we can apply some quick fixes to get the fastest performance especially when internet on your smartphone is really slow. Here we will discuss few workarounds available to us:

Use Both- Wi-Fi and Cellular Connection:

GenerallyWi-Fi connections has better performancethan 3G or 4G mobile cellular connections.To connect to any Wi-Fi connection first find the available networks that provide Wi-Fi connectivity  and then select the particular network which you are authorised to use. Wi-Fi connections also provide an added advantage of avoiding the fees which most of the phone providers charge in order to use their cell networks.

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But sometimes we face situations where cellular connection works much better than Wi-Fi like:

  • When there are more users accessing the Wi-Fi than it can handle, each smartphone’s internet speeds slowsdown.
  • While using Wi-Fi at a place where its signal strength low or there are interferences in wireless signal, your smartphone’s connection to Wi-Fi can drop to minimum making you wait for long time even in simple tasks like email checking or browsing the Web.
  • If you have subscribed for high performing LTE cellular service, like LTE, that can perform much better than Wi-Fi hotspots

Speed Up Your Phone's Internet

Control the Network Activity of Background Applications

Almost all smartphone provide background service supports like app notifications, online database updates and searching etc. for installed apps. But this feature can continuously use resources on smartphone for an app even when you are not using that particular app. In such cases to improve the performance of apps being used, one can alter settings on the smartphone to limit or stop this background network activity.

In Android based smartphones setting menu has an option  “Restrict background data” and on iOS it is called “Background App Refresh”. Once these options are set, they can halt this type of communication for the entire device or for individual apps, one app at a time.

 Upgrade Your Operating System and Apps

Though operating systems like Android or iOS in smartphone get upgraded periodically for introducing new features and bug fixes for performance improvement, but many times this new upgrade does not work as needed. Instead they bring more new issues which can lower the performance further.

Keep Your Application’s Data Cache Clean

All the apps running on android or iOS based smartphones usedata cache which continuously store copies of your downloaded data.This can help improve the responsiveness of your phone by enabling apps to work with data locally in their caches instead of needing to download from the network more than once. But if you are using various apps simultaneously on your smartphone then your smartphone’s data cache will get filled with data quickly even for the apps those you are not currently using. This can lag the device’s performance, thus it is suggested to delete unused data to make space for new data in the cache.

Reset Your Device’s Network Connection

Turn your smartphone off and then turn on to reset it’s network connection, oryou can on airplane mode, then Reason behind this solution is , many times smartphone’s network connection gets stuck in a connectionthat has slow data speed and is meant for older of phones. To check the connection your smartphone an icon for each type.

How Does Wireless Speakers Work?

The Need of Wireless Speakers

Running cables throughout the house to interconnect speakers with tuner, audio receiver etc. is a common complaint against home audio systems. With increasing number of new channels added to home audio equipment, it becomes really challenging to connect the speakers to the audio sources.

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Just imagine a digital surround sound system with 7 speakers and a subwoofer need 7 cables ( 1 for each speaker) running around your house making it a tripping hazard. Not just that, among 7 at least 4 of the speakers should be no less than 10 feet away from the centre or rear of your listening room.

Mechanism of Wireless Speakers

Wireless speakers operate in the same fashion as the regular speakers  but with the added benefit of a transmitter replacing wires. Usually wireless speakers have a range of minimum 150 feet of the transmitter, which is way beyond the range you might ever need. Wireless speakers rely on batteries or an AC adapter for power. Battery power makes your system mobile as you can move around as far as into alternate rooms or outdoors without losing the source signal.

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How Does the Transmission Takes place?

Wireless-Speakers-X-Mini1

Once you switch on music or a DVD on your computer, the transmitter receives a signal from the computer. Then, the  transmitter transforms the signal into one same as that of an FM radio. That signal broadcasts on a particular frequency to avoid interference from other objects. It is broadcasted within a specific range in a circular radius in such a way that any device that can pick up that kind of signal will eventually receive sound from the computer. There speakers already have small built in receivers for decoding the signal into standard audio information for listening. This complete process takes place in real time, thus there is no time difference between the moment you press “Play” on your computer to the moment you hear sound from your speakers.

Role of Wireless Speakers in Home Theaters

Wireless speakers are also capable of decoding discrete audio information such as standard home theater. Meaning that if the computer is aware that a particular bit of sound should be coming out of the front right speaker, then it will broadcast that specific bit of sound directly to the front right speaker. This scenario is used typically while playing DVD movies. So your wireless speakers will provide output only if the sound card on your computer supports discrete audio.

How to Select the Right Wireless Speakers?

Quality – Basically quality of wireless speakers depends largely on the model. While cheap ones generally sound distorted, superior models can provide quite good quality audio sound. These superior speakers also tend to last longer without giving much problem

Compatibility with Devices- A good wireless speaker should be able to connect to a variety of other devices via industry-standard technologies

Portability – Choose a possibly lightweight wireless speaker which should be enough to move from one location to another, with good battery life

Style – Last but not the least, it should have an aesthetic appeal.

Check the Status of Network Connection of Wireless Devices

It has become an absolute need to have an access to network devices either for businesses or  for home offices. But if you think that, after more than a decade of innovations, you would get a picture-perfect product by now, then you are mistaken! Still anybody can face the situation where their network devices were not connected as they had wished for.

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Especially, wireless devices can get disconnected suddenly and sometimes even without providing any warning. The reason behind this could be anything like signal interference, technical glitches etc. Even though if you are following the exact same steps to get connected successfully every day for months, but any day things can suddenly stop working.

So to avoid such situations, we need to keep network connections status in check continuously. Unfortunately, the ways for checking status of network connection depend largely on the particular device involved.

Status of Network Connection of Wireless Devices

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Smartphones

In case of Smartphones, special icons inside a bar towards the top of main screen display both the features – cellular as well as WiFi connection. Generally multiple vertical bars are displayed by these icons to show network connections. A  high quality connection has more bars compared to a poor or low quality connection. In Android phones data transfer across the network or connection is displayed by flashing arrows with in the same icon. There is always a Settings app involved for typically viewing more details about the connections and how to disconnect. If you wish, you have the option of installing various multiple third-party apps for getting report about wireless issues and connections.

Laptops, PCs and other Computers

Every operating system of a computer has in-built connection management utilizes.

For example on Microsoft Windows, to know the status of both wireless and wired networks, we have Network and Sharing Center where as in Chromebooks Chrome O/S network issues are really bad as Chromebooks mainly work on an active Internet connection. So we have two places for changing wireless settings on a Chromebook. One is through the status bar in the bottom right-hand corner of your Chromebook’s screen which has icons reflecting the connection status and another through Network bar near the top of the screen. Though some users prefer to install third-party applications offering similar features using different user interfaces.

Routers

The administrator console of any router records details of both type of connections – connection with the outside world and with any other devices connected through LAN. These days almost all routers has LED lights indicating connection status for its Internet link plus any wired links. To interpret the connection status using these LED lights, first one has to learn the meaning of each color and flashes.

Game Consoles, Printers and Home Appliances

Beyond routers, an increasing number of consumer devices in home network with built-in wireless features is not new in today’s world. Each device requires its own unique method for initiating new connections and checking their status. Many gaming consoles like Sony PlayStation, Microsoft Xbox and Smart TVs offer their own graphical on-screen menus such as “Setup” and “Network”.

Printers has either text-based menus visible on their small local displays, or an interface for checking status from a separate computer remotely. In today’s automated world few devices like thermostats may also have automated features like small screen displays, where-as, some others devices offer only lights and/or buttons.

How Often You Should Check Wireless Connections?

Checking the network connection regularly is as important as as knowing how to do it. When you receive an error message on your device’s screen, checking the connection status becomes very necessary. But in many cases you will not get a direct notification, like while on roaming your movement may cause the network to drop out in your mobile device.

It is better to check your connection every time you start troubleshooting issues concerning crashed applications or applications that suddenly stopped responding.

An Introduction to OpenFlow

OpenFlow was designed by academic researchers as one of the first software-defined networking(SDN) standards for administering computer network. The goal was to make all the access points such as network routers and network switches programmable in order to meet changing business requirements.

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Role of  OpenFlow

Main role of an OpenFlow is to allow administrators to centrally control data routing decisions of routers and switches. Unlike  traditional networks where administrator configure each device with necessary policies, in an OpenFlow enabled network, the policies are programmed as a group on all switches and routers. If needed policies can be altered and each device can be re-programmed using the same interfaces. OpenFlow can play a crucial role in datacenter by simplifying management of virtual servers and similar re-provisioning applications.

OpenFlow

How OpenFlow Works?

OpenFlow works by establishing OpenFlow Controller which is a central service device on the network. These OpenFlow Controller setup connections with OpenFlow aware routers and switches and then sends instructions or commands to them using a specific network protocol. These commands, in turn instruct the receiving devices to adjust their logic for processing packets. Routers and switches can also in return send messages or error notifications back to the Controller.

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The OpenFlow protocol describes message exchanges that take place between an OpenFlow controller and an OpenFlow switch. The OpenFlow protocol allows the controller to perform add, update, and delete actions. It supports mainly three types of messages:

Controller-to-Switch Messages: Such messages are started by controller and, in certain cases, it also need a response back from the switch. Messages of this class allows the controller to handle the logical state of the switch. This class also involves Packet-out message which is needed  when the controller choose not to drop the packet which was sent by the switch. Instead the controller direct it to a switch output port.

Asynchronous Messages: Such messages are sent without seeking confirmation from the controller. This class involves types of status messages including the Packet-in message sent by the switch while moving packet to the controller.

Symmetric Messages: Such messages are sent without consulting either the controller or the switch. These types of messages are used to send Hello messages between the controller and switch during their first connection. To measure bandwidth or latency of the connection, echo request and reply messages are used by either the switch or the controller.

Issues Involved With OpenFlow

There are several limitations or extra efforts involved in implementing OpenFlow environment:

  • For any device to work in an OpenFlow environment and communicate to an SDN/OpenFlow Controller, it must support the standard OpenFlow protocol.
  • A business which is willing to adopt OpenFlow environment and which has larger  amounts of legacy hardware to upgrade for the new environment, will have to undertake a significant effort and expense to work with the protocol.
  • Many administrators are not familiar with the concept of programmable devices, thus businesses may have tough time finding the right candidate in the absence of proper training and certification programs for OpenFlow.
  • Besides OpenFlow there are many alternatives for handling Software Defined Networking. The pace at which industry is evolving, we can’t simply say no to the possibility of a newer standard to emerge that can replace OpenFlow and hence, it can make a business to worry about the return on investment involved in adopting it.

Several applications are using OpenFlow such as mission-critical networks, VM (virtual machine) mobility, and new generation IP-based mobile networks. Some of the big companies like IBM, Google, and HP are showing interest in OpenFlow standard, in fact, few of them have already utilised it.